Click any of the following links below to learn more about the history and effects of stereotyping, as well as bias, discrimination, and racism in healthcare:

  • Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnica Disparities in Health Care is a report released by the Institute of Medicine in 2002 to assess the extent of disparities in the types and quality of health services received by U.S. racial and ethnic minorities and non-minorities; explore factors that may contribute to inequities in care; and recommend policies and practices to eliminate these inequities. The link provides excerpts from the report that available for free viewing and also how to purchase the book in its entirety.
  • The Right to Equal Treatment: An Action Plan to End Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment in the United States is the report of a panel formed by the Physicians for Human Rights to look at racial and ethnic disparities. The report examines these medical care disparities and offers suggestions on how to close the gaps.
  • The Help Understand Why Initiative was undertaken by the Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Here, you can find reviews of the evidence regarding racial/ethnic differences in cardiac care, and various other materials, reviews, and updates.
  • The Commonwealth Fund is a private foundation that aims to promote a high performing health care system that achieves better access, improved quality, and greater efficiency, particularly for society's most vulnerable, including low-income people, the uninsured, minority Americans, young children, and elderly adults.
  • "Levels of Racism: A Theoretic Framework and a Gardener's Tale" from the American Journal of Public Health by Dr. Phyllis Jones, is an article expanding on the levels of racism as a blueprint to understand race-associated differences in health outcomes.