The CEEJH Laboratory was founded by Dr. Sacoby Wilson, assistant professor in the Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, in the Fall 2011. CEEJH's primary focus is to provide engagement to highly and differentially exposed populations and underserved communities. Our work has included the development of and participation in partnerships with community-based organizations, environmental advocacy groups, health practitioners, and policymakers (federal, state, and local government) to reduce local contamination, improve environmental quality, and enhance community health and sustainability.
CEEJH advances environmental justice by developing community-university partnerships, using the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, community-owned and managed research (COMR) principles, and the Collaborative-Problem Solving Model (CPSM) with a focus on equitable planning, healthy zoning, and sustainable community development. Currently, CEEJH has partnerships with community groups in North Carolina and South Carolina and has trained impacted residents and helped to become citizen scientists using the CBPR framework.
CEEJH is building partnerships in Maryland with community-based organizations and environmental advocacy groups on agricultural pollution in the Chesapeake Bay, exposure disparities for fishermen and residents in the Anacostia Watershed, air pollution issues in South Baltimore, and environmental health disparities in DC. In addition, the CEEJH team has provided outreach and education to teachers and students on Chesapeake Bay contamination, related human health issues, and climate change using the STEMH pipeline development model.
CEEJH acts as a Community Outreach and Engagement Core for the Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health. See following figure:
The primary goals of CEEJH are to:
- Serve as the link between the University of Maryland and community-based organizations, environmental advocacy groups, health professionals, educators and students, and policymakers on identifying environmental agents and environmental health issues in the District of Columbia-Maryland-Virginia region.
- Place specific focus on the environmental health issues associated with contamination of the Chesapeake Bay, Anacostia watershed, Eastern Shore (Choptank River) and other regional waterways, such as exposure to PCB, mercury, and arsenic contamination through fish consumption.
- Use the community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework, collaborative problem-solving model (CPSM) principles, and partnerships with diverse community-based organizations and stakeholder groups to address human health risks and environmental issues defined by stakeholders particularly members of underserved populations, and to empower these populations through education, outreach and capacity-building
- Provide outreach and education to teachers and students on environmental health and environmental justice issues, including Chesapeake Bay contamination, related human health issues, and climate change using the Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Health (STEMH) pipeline development model.
- Development or participation in partnerships with federal, state, and local government, and other policymakers to reduce environmental contamination in this region, understand the role that environmental health policies and planning and development has on driving environmental injustice and environmental health disparities, and work with these policymaker to use environmental justice principles to human health, enhance quality of life, and provide economic benefits to disadvantaged and underserved communities and regions.
Dr. Sacoby Wilson
Dr. Sacoby Wilson, MS, PhD; Assistant Professor and Program Director
Dr. Sacoby Wilson is an Associate Professor with the Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland-College Park. Dr. Wilson has over 15 years of experience as environmental health scientist in the areas of exposure science, environmental justice, environmental health disparities, community-based participatory research, water quality analysis, air pollution studies, built environment, industrial animal production, climate change, community resiliency, and sustainability. He works primarily in partnership with community-based organizations to study and address environmental justice and health issues and translate research to action.
Dr. Wilson is Director of the Community Engagement, Environmental Justice and Health (CEEJH) Initiative. CEEJH is focused on providing technical assistance to communities fighting against environmental injustice and environmental health disparities in the DMV region and across the nation. Through CEEJH, Dr. Wilson is engaging communities in the Washington, DC region on environmental health issues including exposure and health risks for individuals who fish and recreate on the Anacostia River; use of best management practices to reduce stormwater inputs in the Chesapeake Bay; air pollution and health impacts due to industrial and commuter traffic in Bladensburg, MD; built environment, environmental injustice, and vectors in West Baltimore; cumulative impacts of environmental hazards on air quality in Brandywine, MD; goods movement, industrial pollution, and environmental injustice in South Baltimore, MD; environmental justice and health issues in Buzzard Point area of Washington, DC; industrial chicken farming on Maryland's Eastern Shore; health impact of assessment in the Sheriff Road community; and other topics. In addition, he is working with schools in the region on pipeline development efforts in the STEM+H disciplines (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Health).
He has worked on environmental justice issues including environmental racism with community-based organizations through long-term community-university environmental health and justice partnerships in South Carolina and North Carolina including the Low Country Alliance for Model Communities (LAMC), in North Charleston, South Carolina; the West End Revitalization Association (WERA) in Mebane, NC; and the Graniteville Community Coalition (GCC) in Graniteville, SC. He has provided technical assistance to REACH in Duplin County, NC; RENA in Orange County, NC; and the NC Environmental Justice Network.
Dr. Wilson has been very active professionally as an environmental justice advocate. He is Founder of 17 for Peace and Justice and a Co-Founder of the DC/Maryland/Virginia (DMV) Environmental Justice Coalition. He is a member of the USEPA's National Environmental Justice Advisory Council (NEJAC), a past Chair of the APHA Environment Section, on the Board of Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, a former member of the Board of Scientific Counselors for the CDC NCEH/ATSDR, and former Chair of the Alpha Goes Green Initiative, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. He is also a senior fellow in the Environmental Leadership Program.
Dr. Wilson has received many awards for his contributions and achievements as an environmental justice researcher and advocate. He recently the 2018 Taking Nature Black Environmental Champion Award. He also received the APHA Environment Section Damu Smith Environmental Justice Award in 2015. From the University of Maryland School of Public Health, he received the George F. Kramer Practitioner of the Year Award (2014-2015) and the Muriel R. Sloan Communitarian Award (2012-2013). He also received the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Social Justice Award from the University of South Carolina in 2011. He received a USEPA Environmental Justice Achievement Award given to Low Country Alliance for Model Communities, North Charleston, SC and Mitigation Agreement Committee. Additionally, Dr. Wilson received the Steve Wing International Environmental Justice Award in 2008.
Dr. Wilson, a two-time EPA STAR fellow, EPA MAI fellow, Udall Scholar, NASA Space Scholar, and Thurgood Marshall Scholar, received his BS degree in Biology/Ecotoxicology with a minor in Environmental Science from Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University in 1998. He received training in environmental health in the Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Wilson received his MS degree in 2000 from UNC-Chapel Hill and his PhD from UNC-Chapel Hill in 2005.
Dr. Chengsheng Jiang
Dr. Chengsheng Jiang, MS, PhD; Spatial Analyst
Dr. Jiang has experience in GIS, spatial statistics, spatial sampling design, data analysis, data mining, air pollution exposure assessment, climate change, GPS application in environment health, human behavior classification, large data sets, spatial database and software design and implementation. His current research focus is on evaluating the effects of climate change on public health and environmental justice, and the relation between adverse health effects (eg. cancer risk) and social/economic status and environmental health.
Rianna Murray, MPH, Doctoral Student, Graduate Assistant
Rianna received her Bachelor of Science degree with a double major in Chemistry and Biochemistry from the University of the West Indies in Trinidad and Tobago. She went on to pursue a Master’s of Public Health with a concentration in environmental health science from the University of Maryland and graduated in 2013. She is currently a PhD student in the Toxocology and Environmental Health program in the Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health. Her research interests include environmental justice, global health, water quality and health disparities, particularly among underserved populations. Her current work investigates the adverse health effects associated with exposure to contaminants faced by residents, subsistence fishers and recreational users of the Anacostia River which spans the state of Maryland and the District of Columbia. The aims of this work are to inform policy and educate and promote healthy living among these populations using a community based participatory research framework. Rianna is also involved in the Public Health without Borders (PHWB) group on the UMD campus and was a member of the travel team on a PHWB trip to Sierra Leone in June 2014.
Lucy Kavi, MS, Doctoral Student, Graduate Assistant
Rosemary Ezeugoh, MBA, MPH, Doctoral Student, Graduate Assistant
Jan-Michael Archer, MS, Doctoral Student, Graduate Assistant
Aubree Driver, BS Public Health (expected 2018), Undergraduate Intern
Beza Dagnachew, BS Environmental Science & Policy (expected 2018), Post-baccalaureate Intern
Coline Bodenreider, BS Environmental Science & Technology (expected 2019), Undegraduate Intern
Crystal Mehdizadeh, BS Public Health Science (expected 2019), Undergraduate Intern
Haley Mullen, BA Environemental Science & Policy (expected 2020), Undergraduate Intern
Kamran Ayub, BS Public Health Science (expected 2020), Undergraduate Intern
Kesanet Seleshi, BA Psychology (expected 2018), Post-baccalaureate Intern
Meslech Bellay, BS Economics (expected 2019), Undergraduate Intern
Vivek Ravichandran, BS Public Health (expected 2018), Undergraduate Intern
Maryland Environmental Health Disparities Project
Maryland grapples with many of the same health disparities facing states across the country. Although Maryland has the 3rd highest median household income and the 2nd highest number of primary care physicians per capita in the country, it also ranks 43rd in infant mortality, 28th in obesity prevalence, 31st in diabetes prevalence, 35th in cardiovascular deaths, 32nd in cancer deaths, and 33rd for geographic health disparities. These statistics point to the possibility of significant health disparities within the state. The Maryland Plan to Eliminate Minority Health Disparities by the Office of Minority Health and Health Disparities in Maryland (2010) lists racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause mortality, heart disease, renal disease, hypertension, obesity, HIV/AIDS, and asthma. Combined, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and asthma cost an excess $15 million in Medicare among the African American population in Maryland. Additionally, all-cause mortality rates among those who identify as Black or African American are higher than all-cause mortality rates of Whites in 20 of the 23 Maryland counties where the age-adjusted rate could be calculated.
The aforementioned disparities may be due to environmental factors. Three of the four counties in Maryland with the highest percentages of minorities (Baltimore City, Charles County, Montgomery County, and Prince George's County all have more than 50% minority residents compared to less than 30% in the state of Maryland) also have the highest total environmental releases (Charles, Prince George's, and Baltimore City). The University of Wisconsin County Health Rankings lists these three counties 11th, 15th, and 24th, respectively, for overall health in Maryland out of 24 counties total. When taking into account physical environment factors including particulate matter, ozone days, access to recreational facilities, access to healthy foods, and fast food restaurants, Prince George's County ranked 18 of 24 counties in 2010 and 23 out of 24 in 2011 and 2012.
We are currently performing statistical analyses to assess the spatial distribution of environmental hazards, pollution-intensive facilities, and noxious land uses at the county and census tract level in the state of Maryland to obtain evidence of environmental injustice. We are using ArcGIS 10.1 (ESRI, Inc., Redlands, CA) to assess the spatial distribution of local sources of pollution in state of Maryland. We hypothesize that minority, low SES, and low education populations at the county level will have a higher concentration of pollution sources and pollution levels than White and affluent populations with access to more resources. We have obtained latitude/longitude coordinates for EPA permitted air emitters, chemical plants, coal-fired plants, landfills, incinerators, toxic release inventory (TRI) facilities, Superfund sites, and other local environmental hazards from EPA databases including Envirofacts and Maryland Department of Environment (MDE) and Department of Natural Resources (DNR) GIS websites. Demographic data on race, income, and education for each census tract and county in the state of Maryland will be obtained from the 2000 and 2010 US Census. We are using GIS to construct choropleth maps for % African-American, % non-white, % poverty, and % less than HS education.
We have employed the spatial coincidence method and proximity analysis specifically utilizing buffer zones to assess the spatial distribution of the industrial sources of pollution in relation to the demographic composition of populations at the census tract level including the use of cumulative distance functions. We are using GIS to map CAPs, HAPs, and TRI levels in the project area and assess differences in spatial distribution of these pollutants based on demographic composition at the county and census tract levels.
Project CAESARR (Community-Based Assessment of Exposure to Substances in the Anacostia River Region)
Subsistence fishers are often low-income individuals or persons of color who fish for personal consumption. Previous studies have shown that vulnerable populations with unique exposures (low income, people of color, Indian tribes and other indigenous populations) are often most susceptible to adverse health effects because of their differential exposure to multiple environmental contaminants, psychosocial stressors, socioeconomic disadvantage and lack of access to quality health care. Subsistence fishers have uniquely high fish consumption rates; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assumes default fish consumption rates among subsistence fishers of 142.4 grams per day, 8 times the default assumption of 17.5 grams per day for the general population. But, even this higher default may underestimate consumption by some fishing groups. There are approximately 1.5 million saltwater fishers, including many subsistence fishers, among the 17 million people living in the Chesapeake Bay region. Many of these fishers live in urban communities impacted by disproportionately high levels of environmental hazards that have led to contamination of local rivers and food sources from those rivers. Thus, the human health consequences of high fish consumption by vulnerable populations in the Chesapeake Bay region, a highly contaminated estuary on the Atlantic Coast, are an important public health issue. It is imperative to arm urban fishers and their neighborhoods with knowledge and tools to reduce their exposure to harmful pollution sources.
Project CAESARR is a project recently funded by the Smithsonian and University of Maryland Seed Grant Program. Dr. Sacoby Wilson is collaborating with Dr. Vikki Chanse, School of Agriculture, Mr. Tony Thomas, Anacostia Community Museum, and the Anacostia Watershed Society on the project. This study will be the first to comprehensively evaluate cumulative risk among subsistence, cultural, and recreational fishers and local residents incorporating biomarker based measure of exposure, and both individual and neighborhood level stressors. Our aims will be to: 1) Quantify key determinants (demographic, geographic, behavioral factors) of seafood consumption among urban fishers compared with residential populations in the Anacostia Watershed; 2) Assess underlying social and geographic vulnerability of fishers through Photovoice and interviews; 3) Enroll sport and subsistence saltwater fishers and controls in a study of fish consumption and biomarkers of exposure to assess spatial and temporal variability of exposure to mercury and PCBs; and 4) Perform cumulative risk assessment among sport and subsistence fishers and determine how these cumulative risks are distributed among demographic, geographic, and behavioral factors identified under Aim 1. Our use of community based participatory research (CBPR) approach will enable fishers to enhance stewardship of the Anacostia Watershed, reduce exposures, improve public health, and use data for better risk management strategies.
EJ Radar, South Carolina
The Environmental Justice (EJ) Radar is a Public Participation Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS) website designed for South Carolina residents to know and share environmental information about the burden of physical and social environmental hazards with linkage to health disparities. The use of PPGIS will help residents map environmental health data, build capacity, and empower residents to be more engaged in environmental decision-making. The idea behind PPGIS is empowerment and inclusion of marginalized populations, who have little voice in the public arena, through geographic technology education and participation. PPGIS uses and produces digital maps, satellite imagery, sketch maps, and many other spatial and visual tools, to change geographic involvement and awareness on a local level.
Charleston Area Pollution Prevention Partnership (CAPs), South Carolina
The Charleston Area Pollution Prevention Partnership (CAPs) was established as a community-university partnership between the Low-Country Alliance for Model Communities (LAMC), the University of South Carolina (USC), South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Health (SC DHEC), and recently, the University of Maryland at College Park (UMD). Guided by the community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework and collaborative-problem solving model (CPSM) principles, CAPs has an overarching goal to address environmental injustice, public health, and revitalization issues in North Charleston, South Carolina (SC). In an effort to achieve the aforementioned goal, the CAPs project has the following aims: (1) assess the geographic distribution of pollution sources in North Charleston, SC, (2) quantify levels of particulate matter and heavy metals near industrial and non-point sources of pollution in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in North Charleston, SC, and (3) increase community-capacity to reduce exposure, prevent pollution, and improve public health through community-based outreach, education, and training. Some of the research activities of CAPs include assessing spatial disparities in the distribution of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities, Superfund sites, and Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUSTs) facilities; monitoring of particulate matter levels at the neighborhood level near sensitive community locations and heavily trafficked roadways; determining cancer risk disparities; conducting soil assessment for heavy metals and trace elements including arsenic, mercury and lead; and providing environmental education and training opportunities to community members.
Mission: To promote environmental awareness, literacy, and empowerment in the African-American community.
Project Excellence activities include summer camps, summer enrichment programs, environmental health workshops, environmental justice and health modules for local schools, air monitoring training, soil assessment training, and an annual dissemination event and health fair known as the Day of Neighborly Needs.
Environmental Health Core (EHCORE), South Carolina
The environmental health core was established as an extension of the Coordinating Center of Excellence in the Social Promotion of Health Equity in Research, Research Education and Training, and Community Engagement and Outreach (CCE-SPHERE), an NIMHD-funded Center of Excellence (CoE) housed in the Institute for Partnerships to Eliminate Health Disparities (IPEHD), at the University of South Carolina Arnold School of Public Health. In partnership with the University of Maryland, the environmental health core uses resident expertise in the areas of environmental, social, and behavioral science coupled with community-based participatory and translational research to achieve health equity. The environmental health core has a project aim that is threefold: (1) assess environmental health disparities and the spatial distribution of hazardous waste sites in the state through data collected by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC DHEC) Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Program; (2) assess community perception of environmental determinants of cancer risk and disparities in rural and urban communities in South Carolina using a mixed methods approach; and (3) engage and train members of community-based organizations that represent environmental health disparity populations in the use of the block assessment methodology to help stakeholders identify ecological stressors and intervene to address disparities in burden, exposure, and health. EHCORE team members have partnered with community groups in Orangeburg, South Carolina and Charleston, South Carolina to build community capacity to address environmental justice issues and environmental health disparities. CBPR activities have included the use of Photovoice to assess community perception about environmental health risks and cancer disparities.
GRACE, South Carolina
The Graniteville Recovery and Chlorine and Epidemiology Study also known as the GRACE Study Center was established with the vision of developing a healthy Graniteville community sufficiently recovered from the chlorine spill disaster. On January 6, 2005, a train derailed in Graniteville South Carolina, causing a major chlorine gas spill. The residents of Graniteville were left to suffer great emotional, physical and economical loss. Nine people lost their lives as a result of the derailment, and hundreds of people visited hospital local emergency rooms with complaints of symptoms as it relates to the crash. More than fifty people were admitted to hospitals and many still suffer from the consequences of chlorine exposure. GRACE is exploring the long-term respiratory effects of human exposure to chlorine gas. General health screenings and simple lung function tests are provided through the center. In order to achieve their scientific goal, GRACE also measured the lung function among the Avondale millworkers to determine the long term effects of chlorine on lungs. CEEJH team members are assisting with community engagement efforts including working with GRACE Community Advisory Board (CAB).
Project RISE, South Carolina
In 2005, a train derailment and chlorine spill occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina, several people died with over 1,000 local residents impacted by the event. The community was medically underserved before the train disaster. There is a paucity of information on what the combined effects of a disaster and living in a medically underserved rural area have on a vulnerable community's health, access to health resources, and quality of life. An attempt to capture the recovery piece of an already vulnerable community in the aftermath of a disaster only further serves to elucidate the grim landscape behind a medically underserved community. Attention is rarely drawn to the behind-the-scenes reality of post-recovery efforts within a fragmented community disproportionately suffering from pre-existing medical service delivery issues. This aspect of vulnerability is further exacerbated in the event of a disaster, but to our knowledge there has been little research documenting the effects of a disaster, particularly the "secondary surge" (e.g., the sudden increase in need for long-term health services following a disaster), on an already stressed community's health status and health care needs.
NIH funded RISE (Restoration in Graniteville Through Supportive Engagment), a project to understand the long-term effects of the man-made disaster in Graniteville, South Carolina. Dr. Wilson is a Co-PI of the project with Dr. Lucy Annang, an assistant professor at the Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina. The goal of this project is to use both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis, with community-based participatory research (CBPR), to document how the challenges presented by the post-disaster surge in health service delivery are further compounded within a medically underserved community in the rural South. To achieve this goal, we propose the following specific aims: 1) assess community members' perceptions about the long-term impacts of the disaster on public health, quality of life, and access to health services; 2) assess healthcare providers' perceptions about the long-term impacts of the disaster on public health, quality of life, and access to health services; 3) assess hospital discharge data (inpatient and emergency room) from area hospitals for utilization and severity and frequency of various diagnoses and procedures pre- and post-disaster. The project is novel because it will study the long-term health impacts of a chlorine spill in a small rural medically underserved area for the first time. The information will be used to help improve recovery and revitalization efforts in the community.
What has worked well, what hasn't and what work still needs to be done in Graniteville is being documented with the help of photos. Project RISE has given a small group of people digital cameras to carry with them for the next seven days so that they may capture different aspects of Midland Valley to develop a narrative of the area now that seven years have passed since the devastating train disaster. The method, combining photography with grassroots social action, is called PhotoVoice. The pictures, along with the input of those behind the cameras, will be an effective tool to show how Midland Valley was affected by the disaster and will be shared with other community members, agencies and policy makers like the Environmental Protection Agency and the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
West End Revitalization Association, North Carolina
The West End Revitalization Association (WERA) is a community organization located in Mebane, North Carolina. WERA has an innovative community-university partnership that has included students and faculty from the from the School of Public Health in the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, University of South Carolina, Elon University, North Carolina Central University, University of Maryland-College Park, among others. WERA focuses on addressing the lack of basic amenities and infrastructure in distressed African-American communities in Mebane and other areas in the Southeastern United States. WERA has fought for 20 years to stop the building of the 119-Bypass through historic African-American neighborhoods. Because of its community-owned and managed research, nearly 100 homes have received first time installation of sewer and water infrastructure and neighborhood roads were paved for the first time. Omega Wilson, President of WERA, has presented on this work at national and international conferences. He received a 2008 Environmental Justice Achievement Award from the USEPA and had a recent appointment to the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council.
The WERA Neighborhoods include West End, White Level, and Buckhorn/Perry Hill. These neighborhoods are primarily African-American, elderly, and low-income.
2018 Environmental Justice and Health Disparities Conference
Dr. Robert Bullard - The Wrong Complexion for Protection: Race, Place and the Politics of Pollution
Environmental Justice and Health Equity in Prince George’s County
MDEJSCREEN Presentation to the Montgomery County Planning Board
Hip-Hop Caucus Think 100% - Climate Justice in the DMV
Excerpt from Environmental Justice, CAFOs, and Community Health Plenary with Dr. Sacoby Wilson
THE PURE APPROACH: What is Environmental Justice?
Hurricane Florence Is Turning North Carolina Into a Toxic Stew of Pig Poop, Sewage, and Coal Ash (September 18, 2018)
"The 40 inches of rain Hurricane Florence has dumped on North Carolina is leaving a trail of industrial waste as runoff from coal ash pits, inundated sewage systems, and feces from dozens of hog farms pours into rivers, lakes, and neighborhoods."
94.1 KPFA - UpFront Radio Show: Hurricane Florence wreaks toxic havoc in North Carolina... (September 18, 2018)
“Dr. Sacoby Wilson, professor at the Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Sciences, returns to the show to give further context on health impacts and environmental justice research in North Carolina as Hurricane Florence bears down on the Southeastern United States.”
94.1 KPFA - UpFront Radio Show: Hurricane Florence makes landfall in North Carolina... (September 14, 2018)
“Host Mitch Jeserich is joined by Dr. Sacoby Wilson, professor with the Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health at the University of Maryland School of Public Health (@UMDPublicHealth), to talk potential health impacts and environmental justice implications of the storm.”
“With the help of local scientists, the unincorporated community of Brandywine plans to collect its own air quality data to test the impacts of new power plants.”
“If you’ve ever passed a large pig farm or cattle operation and rolled up your windows to keep out the stench, imagine living next door to it. Neighbors believe regulations that govern how smelly and messy a hog farm can be haven’t kept pace with just how huge these farms have become. So they’ve been suing the farms under nuisance laws – and lately they’re winning those cases."
The Conversation US: "Rural Americans’ struggles against factory farm pollution find traction in court" (July 2, 2018)
“As U.S. livestock farming becomes more industrial, it is changing rural life. Neighbors have to contend with noxious odors, toxic emissions and swarms of insects, and have had little success in obtaining relief – but this could be changing.”
“Residents going “door-to-door” to educate about environmental hazards are crucial to improving community health.”
Delaware Online (USA TODAY): "Response to toxic water vastly different in two Sussex communities" (February 17, 2018)
"People are hyper-sensitive to issues of clean water, safe water, across the country because of Flint. They don't want to be called the next Flint. But you already have a mini-Flint for the people that live near Millsboro."
"Five are enough," says Earl Mitchell, the president of a local civic association in Brandywine, Maryland. "We shouldn't have any more here."
The Huffington Post: “The Worst Polluters Are In The Most Vulnerable Neighborhoods, Study Finds” (February 3, 2016)
The country’s “super polluters” tend to set up shop in low-income and minority neighborhoods.